Long Descriptions for Sea Level Rise Publication Images
This image is a cartoon of a development attempt along the coast. The first frame shows a coastal wetland with a turtle in it. The second frame shows a regulator denying a permit for ABC Developments to fill the wetland. The third frame shows a house behind a sea wall next to the intact wetland, which is still on the beach side of the sea wall. The regulator is saying "much better!" Above the forth frame, it says "but thirty years later" and the wetland is completely covered by the water. The turtle says "some plan!"
This image asks "who owns the beach" and graphically shows the public ownership in all the states bordering the Ocean. In Maine, Massachusetts, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Virginia, the public owns access along the wet beach only for hunting, fishing, and navigation. In New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, Mississippi, California, and Alaska, the public owns the wet beach below high water. In New York, Louisiana, Washington, and Hawaii, the public owns the wet and dry beach. In New Jersey, Texas, and Oregon, the public owns the wet beach, and has access along the dry beach.
This graphic contains four illustrations that depict the evolution of marsh sea level rise 5000 years ago, today, and in the future. The caption reads, "Coastal marshes have kept pace with the slow rate of sea level rise that has characterized the last several thousand years. Thus, the area of marsh has expanded over time as new lands have been inundated. If in the future, sea level rises faster than the ability of the marsh to keep pace, the marsh area will contract. Construction of bulkheads to protect economic development may prevent new marsh from forming and result in a total loss of marsh in some areas."
This graph shows the high and low sea level rise estimates (relative to 1986) made by the EPA, NRC, and WMO for the years 2050 and 2100. According to the estimates, the sea level will rise rapidly from 2000 to 2100. To provide background, the graph also charts the more gradual sea level rise that occurred from 1986 to 2000.
Loss of land due to future sea level rise in Bangladesh from "Greenhouse Effect, Sea Level Rise, and Land Use"
This image graphically depicts the loss of land due to future sea level rise in Bangladesh. The areas that would be affected by a one meter rise and a two meter rise in sea level are marked on the map. A one meter rise in sea level would inundate 17 percent of Bangladesh (Ali and Huq 1989; See Figure 2), and a two meter rise would inundate the capital and over one-half the populated islands of the atoll Republic of Maldives.
Figure 3 consists of four pictures that illustrate the devolution of marsh as sea rises. The first picture shows the sea level 5000 years ago. In this picture the sea level is very low and no development exists. The second picture shows the sea level as it is today. The sea level is higher and development exists, but sedimentation and peat formation have grown in proportion with the sea level rise. The third illustration depicts future sea level rise without development. In this illustration the sea level rise is disproportionate to the growth of sedimentation and peat formation causing substantial wetland loss where there is vacant upland. The fourth illustration depicts future sea level rise where development exists. In this picture there is complete wetland loss and the house is protected in response to the rise in sea level.
This graphic contains two illustrations of an undeveloped coastal barrier islands. The first illustration shows the coast prior to sea level rise. The second illustration shows the coast after sea level rise. As sand is moved inward by process called "overwash," the island as grown almost as steadily as the sea level has risen.
Increasing bay salinity due to sea level rise from "Greenhouse Effect, Sea Level Rise, and Land Use"
This graphic contains two illustrations of open bays, one prior to sea level rise and one after. In the first illustration the water level is low and the amount of freshwater is greater than the amount of sea water prior to sea level rise. In the second illustration, after sea level rise, the overall amount of water has increased and the proportions of sea water and freshwater have changed. In the second illustration there is more sea water than freshwater. Together the illustrations depict the overall effect of saltwater intrusion due to sea level rise.
Impact of sea level rise on island water table from "Greenhouse Effect, Sea Level Rise, and Land Use"
This graphic contains three illustrations. The first illustration, figure 7a, depicts an area where freshwater is plentiful and sea level rise has had little effect. The second and third illustrations, figures 7b and 7c, depict the outcome of sea level rise where freshwater is less plentiful. In figure 7b, an area with more elevation the sea level rise is less of a problem. In figure 7c, a low lying area, the amount of freshwater under ground has declined.
Wetland loss at the mouth of the Mississippi river from "Greenhouse Effect, Sea Level Rise, and Land Use"
This graphic contains two illustrations that show the disintegration of the birdfoot delta of the Mississippi River. The first illustration shows the active delta 1956. In the second illustration, which shows the active delta in 1978, the amount marsh lands, forest wetlands, and uplands has decreased and the amount of dredge deposits has increased.
Responses to sea level rise for developed barrier islands from "Greenhouse Effect, Sea Level Rise, and Land Use"
This graphic contains five illustrations that show the three options for protecting developed barrier islands, the initial case, and the developed island without protection. The first illustration, the initial case, shows the sea level before rise. The second illustration shows the developed island after sea level rise and without protection, the sea level is significantly higher than in the initial case illustration. The third illustration depicts the "engineered retreat" option, which entails gradually filling in the bay side as the ocean side erodes. In this illustration the sea level is significantly higher and the amount of sand on the opposite side of island has increased. The fourth illustration depicts the option of "island raising." In this illustration the sea level rise is noticeable as the island has been raised. The fifth illustration depicts the "levee" option encircling the island with a dike. In this illustration dike appears to be protecting the island from erosion.