Figure 4. Options By Which Developed Barrier Islands Could Respond to Sea level Rise. This figure compares an initial case with several alternative options. The most reasonable option for islands like Long Beach Island, New Jersey,. is probably to simply raise the island in place because existing land uses can be maintained. An engineered retreat wouild require much less sand, however, and may thus be preferable in areas where individuals own all the land from the ocean to the bay. A dike is often the least expensive alternative, but the loss of waterfront views would be intolerable for narrow recreational islands; it may be a better option for wide barrier islands such as Galveston, Texas. Abandonment is generally the last resort.

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